The effects considered include the effects of the building itself and of the HVAC design parameters

Effects of  the building:

  • Building orientation
  • U-values, R-values and CR-values for wall / roof / floor constructions
  • Structural heat storage (building mass and thermal capacity)
  • Windows: size, position, special glazing
  • Shadow effects on both windows and walls from fins, wings of the building, overhangs, balustrades, and the 'building in front'
  • Floors on ground
  • Wind speed 
  • The colour of outside surface (important for solar loads)
  • An option to exclude the convective heat gain from skylights and high roofs (with high-level extracts)
  • Infiltration, air leakage


Effects of HVAC design parameters:

  • Continuous or intermittent plant operation, up to two operating periods
  • Floating temperatures and a 'dead zone' between cooling and heating
  • Plant over- or under-sizing
  • Pre-cooling of ventilation air
  • Ventilation air heat recovery
  • Evaporative cooling (direct or indirect type)
  • Natural ventilation